The Arts & Culture Ecosystem features a complex and interdependent set of relationships among: 1) arts organizations; 2) their communities, reflecting the people who live there, the artists and arts and cultural organizations, and local complementary or substitute businesses and organizations; and 3) the cultural policies that influence the production and consumption of arts and culture (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Modeling the Arts & Culture Ecosystem
To understand what drives the performance of individual arts organizations that reside in distinct communities around the country, we attempt to model all of these different factors. Doing so requires collecting, integrating, and aggregating data from a variety of sources. At present, our data collection covers fiscal years 2007-2012 and our models and results focus on performance in 2008-2012, with data from 2007 acting as a baseline.
Building a Spatial Model: Arts & Cultural Organizations and a Sense of Place »
Arts and Cultural Organization Data
We have arts and cultural organization data from three distinct sources:
By cross-referencing these distinct data sources, we have identified 55,449 unique arts and cultural organizations that reported activity during fiscal years 2007-2012. These 55,449 organizations form our Organizational Index database, which includes addresses, longitudes, latitudes, and overlapping organization identification numbers when an organization appears in multiple datasets. We went line-item by line-item in the organizational surveys to match responses to the same question asked in multiple surveys, determining whether the survey question was asking for identical information or whether it would be possible to create exact equivalents with the information available.
As discussed in the section on How We Determined Geographic Market Clusters, the longitudes and latitudes allow us to model the geographic proximity of arts and cultural organizations to each other, to other complementary or substitute business activities (e.g., hotels and restaurants), and to potential audiences that live within the organization’s trading radius.
The organizational data sources vary in terms of population coverage and in terms of data completeness. Data from the National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS), which collects and disseminates data from IRS 990 tax form filings, provides the most complete coverage. The number of arts and cultural organizations filing IRS form 990s varies each year, ranging from a low of 38,861 in 2007 to 42,550 in 2011. CDP provides the most complete data, collecting more than 1200 data points for individual arts organizations on an annual basis. CDP’s current coverage is 13 states and the District of Columbia. From 2007-2012, the CDP data represent approximately 30,000 individual records for some 15,000 organizations. Some organizations respond to the CDP survey only once; perhaps some of these organizations no longer exist. Other organizations have responded 2-3 years, reflecting the roll-out of CDP’s services over time. And we have detailed CDP data for many organizations for 4-6 years.
We use the organizational data for two purposes.
To model Arts & Cultural Organizations’ activities, practices, decisions, and outcomes, as depicted in Figure 1. Only the CDP and TCG data are comprehensive enough for this purpose. Because TCG data are limited to a single arts sector, our Arts Ecology modeling efforts tend to focus on CDP-covered markets.
To model total arts and cultural activity at the Community level, as depicted in Figure 1. Some measures appear in all three data sources. When that occurs, our default is to use the CDP measure if it exists. If not, we then use the TCG measure. Finally, we use the IRS measure. We combine four measures of total arts and cultural activity in the Community, specifically Total Assets, Total Expenses, Total Contributed Revenue and Total Program Revenue. We also incorporate a measure of the number of organizations in each arts and culture sector.
The resulting company database features more than 230,000 unique records for the five-year (2008-2012) period -- more than 46,000 organizations per year. We modeled the Arts and Culture Ecosystems nearly 300 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. In 2012, these markets represented 69% of the US population. Our coverage will increase with time, and the findings presented in this report should be interpreted within the context of our current reach and coverage.
As noted above, we used Arts and Cultural Organization data to model total arts activity in the Community. We also collected Census Bureau data to create a more complete model of the Arts Ecology at the Community level. These Census Bureau measures include:
Arts-related estimates of the number of arts and entertainment organizations, number of employees at arts and entertainment organizations, and number of independent artists;
Leisure complements & substitutes: e.g., number of hotels, restaurants, cinemas, and sports teams.
Individual-level estimates: for example, total population, per capita income, the percentage of individuals with college degrees, and the percentage of individuals in the labor force;
Household-level estimates: for example, percentage of households with income greater than $200,000;
We included data from the Internet Broadway database so that we can examine the effects of arts-related tourism in New York since it is such a large anomaly in the arts and culture ecosystem.
The Community data estimates were collected on an annual basis and geocoded by longitude and latitude at the census tract or zip-code level. These measures combined to create a Spatial Model with 215,000 records, representing data for roughly 40,000 zip codes over five years. We did this because arts organizations don’t exist in a vacuum. Geocoding lets us match each organization to its local market and examine how much that market’s characteristics affect the organization, and in what ways.
Cultural Policy Data
We model the effect of Cultural Policy using measures of grant-making activity from federal and state agencies, specifically:
Using data from the National Endowment for the Arts and Institute of Museum and Library Services, we incorporate the number of grants and level of Federal funding for the Community.
Using data from the National Association of State Arts Agencies, we incorporate the number of grants and level of State funding for the Community.